为啥硅谷不雇佣黑人程序员? - 小众知识

为啥硅谷不雇佣黑人程序员?

2013年01月27日 14:18:05 苏内容
  标签: 硅谷/黑人/种族歧视
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年秋天,年轻的软件工程师 Charles Pratt 抵达了位于华盛顿的霍华德大学。他的雇主 Google 派他到那里去培养硅谷未来的程序员。学生中有 80% 以上都是黑人——这代表了硅谷对霍华德大学友好的态度,此前近十年中,该校计算机系主任 Legand Burge 极力向各大科技公司推荐他们的毕业生,但几乎每个公司都忽略了他的请求。Pratt 在霍华德大学教授计算机课,帮助计算机系调整他们的课程设计,让学生们能够适应 Google 独特的工作程序。这是该校为努力培养出大量计算机工程师所作出的努力之一。但两年半过去了,这个目标并没有实现。缓慢的进展同时也反映出硅谷一项旷日持久的问题: 白人太多了 。

成立于 1867 年的霍华德大学一直以来都是美国最优秀的黑人大学之一。美国第一位最高法院黑人大法官瑟古德 · 马歇尔毕业于此,诺贝尔文学奖得主托妮 · 莫里森也毕业于此;获得美国国家图书奖的黑人作家 Ta-Nehisi Coates 将这里称为「麦加」——他认为这里是黑人世界的圣城,「到这里来比给黑人一张他自己是白人的照片更能让他们相信自己不比白人差」。然而,这里并不像斯坦福、麻省理工或是卡内基梅隆大学等等那些以培养精英为导向的学校一样被科技企业列为招聘的重点,而 Pratt 的到来正逐渐打破这种传统。

迫于舆论压力,公司们开始披露他们的雇员情况。一个数字逐渐浮出了水面:占全美人口总数 13% 的非洲裔美国人,在 Google、Facebook 和其他硅谷科技企业雇员中的占比不到 1%。这至少有部分企业招聘方法的原因:联邦调查局统计,2001 到 2009 年,超过 20% 的黑人计算机系学生毕业于传统的黑人大学,而科技企业们从不在这些学校里招人。

对于公司们公布的数据,Burge 表示招聘人员以及开始和他们接触了。2014 年初,Google 主管人事的高级副总裁就在博客上宣布了 Pratt 到霍华德大学的事。童年秋天,Facebook 主管多样性的董事 Maxine Williams 到该校与校长和学生进行了一场公开交流。Dropbox 也在 2014 年首次在该校进行了招聘活动,第二年 Pinterest 也来了。

尽管进展明显,在我 2015 年 9 月打电话向 Burge 询问企业接触该校的进展时,他依然显得十分谨慎:「『开始』可能有很多种意思。」霍华德大学开始频繁出现在有关科技公司的新闻当中,然而学生们将如何从中收益却尚未可知。Facebook、Dropbox 和 Pinterest 都还没有在霍华德大学招聘过任何一个毕业生做全职,只有 Google 在 2015 年招了一个。这年 Burge 所在的系一共有 28 个毕业生,其中两个去了硅谷,一个在 Google,另一个在 Pandora。「这其中有着巨大的断裂。」他说。

Burge 在业余时间教授武术,他有着技术人员应有的干练和风度,但在运营计算机系时,他又像是一个专业的教练。「有公司来招聘的时候,他会告诉我们『去那家!去那样的!'」十二月毕业的 Lena Alston 说。学生们私下管他叫伯格叔。2005 年,在他当上系主任前,Google 邀请他去面试一个工程师职位。他对这份工作没啥兴趣,这倒是让他看到了另外一种可能性:他没准能帮到他的学生。八年后,他的计划终于实现了。Google 入驻了他的学校。Pratt 曾在卡内基 - 梅隆大学有过教学经验,对于他的编程工作也不再像以前那么热衷,更重要的是,他也是一名黑人计算机工程师。硅谷缺乏种族多样性的问题一直以来同样困扰着 Pratt,当入驻霍华德大学培养黑人计算机工程师的机会出现时,他马上收拾行囊加入了。

硅谷里充满着斯坦福大学和麻省理工学院的优秀毕业生,他们从童年就开始拍代码,在业余时间中参与编程竞赛,暑假也在计算机公司中实习。但在霍华德,Pratt 的学生中几乎没有几个人是那样的。这些学生上大学后才开始学习计算机,很多人甚至没有到过海湾地区。毕业生 Sarah Jones 说,硅谷多年以来对她而言仅仅是个地名。当她在大学里第一次到硅谷参观时,哪里惊人的同质文化让她感到害怕,「那里的人全都是喜欢星球大战和神奇宝贝的白人以及亚洲人」。当科技公司们开始进入霍华德大学,他们向学生们宣传自己拥有室内的操场和排球场,这让 Jones 和她的朋友们兴奋不已。「幻灯片反倒没那么吸引人,」她说,「硅谷里的有色人种不多,这本身就是某种程度上的不欢迎。」

2013 年 Pratt 刚到霍华德大学的时候,他晚上将学生们留下来并跟他们谈话。当他和学生们谈及硅谷时,「每个人都会讲到一个战争的故事」。「他们不是有个自己关于硅谷的故事,就是有个别人告诉他们的关于硅谷的故事阻碍他们来。」他和一个聪明好斗的来自德克萨斯州的二年级学生 Victor Foreman 进行过一次深入的交谈,Foreman 不想遵守规则,因此承担了巨大压力。他选择计算机专业的原因是他认为计算机这个学科正推动着世界的发展,「我想抵达某些领域的极限」他说。

Pratt 逐渐发现,他课程可以帮助学生们学习计算机科学理论,但远远不足以带给他们能够在硅谷生存下去的实际操作技能。他们在上大学前并没有学过编程。Foreman 曾经在德克萨斯上过大学,然后退学去工作了。但工作职位远比工人多得多,于是他决定重返校园。这一次在霍华德大学,他选择了计算机专业。一些其他的学生同样令 Pratt 印象深刻。Remington Holt 选择计算机的原因是曾经与一个朋友一起去参加过信息学会议以及喜欢 Burge 教授;Alston 和 Hallie Lomax 则是因为曾经一时兴起去参加了计算机学习班,然后爱上了这个学科。

「这是我最喜欢的四个学生,在我看来,他们代表了绝大多数人。」Pratt 说。他开始给学生们分配项目,对于大一和大二学生而言,他们需要去实实在在地写代码而不是仅仅去谈论它们。「有个来自 Google 的教授我感到很幸运,但他真的让我们知道了我们是如何落后的。」Foreman 说。Pratt 也注意到,霍华德大学和其他一些黑人大学中的高级课程并不像哈佛或卡内基 - 梅隆大学那样严谨和紧跟时代。到了大三,这些学生就会比他们的同年级生落后许多。

「我会问教师'你们为什么要这样教这门课?』」他回忆道,「他们会说,'好吧,我已经这样教了 25 年了。'」

那年,Pratt 督促 Foreman、Alston、Lomax 以及 Holt 去申请 Google 的有偿暑期实习生。他带领他们通过公司的流程,特别是公司的特殊面试,包括艰难的变成挑战。之后,Lomax 说,

「我坐在星巴克,有人给我打电话说』我们来谈谈你的 offer 吧。』」我说,「你是在开玩笑吗?」Holt 去年曾经尝试过申请 Google 的实习,但失败了,这次他也也收到了 offer,他将这归因于 Pratt 的帮助。Alston 同样得到了实习救你,其他八人也一样。

但 Foreman 并没有得到实习机会。他的同学们认为他是个优秀的程序员,但并不像 Holt 那样是个善于与所有人沟通交流的人。Foreman 非常固执,这有时会让他陷入困境。「我可能只是把它归结成一种软技能。」他说,他曾经和面试他的人发生了冲突。Pratt 解释说他已经「愤怒地」得知了 Foreman 被淘汰的消息。其他公司同样不接受 Foreman,他受够了。如果硅谷持续对他关闭大门,那么他也不打算继续浪费时间去申请了。Burge 和 Pratt 从 Foreman 的经验中认识到一个普遍的问题,来自弱势群体的人会更担心人们对于他们种族的偏见,从而失去信心然后气馁。「刻板印象威胁」现象在硅谷里已经被更加关注起来,很多公司开始训练员工避免这种现象。

「我花了很多时间来鼓励我的好学生之一 Victor 避免这种现象并继续坚持下去。」Pratt 说,「但很明显,他还是觉得有些被排斥。」

当 Lomax、Alston 和 Holt 抵达 Google,三个人都受到了不同程度上的文化冲击。「当我到达 Google,我听到别人一遍又一遍地说『我七岁的时候就会拍代码了。』而我自己只能说』好吧我那时候不会。』」Lomax 说。但硅谷中不同寻常的文化鼓舞了她。在霍华德,她总是被认为有点奇怪,但在这里,人们第一次提醒她要做自己。曾在家乡上过大学的 Alston 则有不一样的体验,她觉得 Googel 想要培养多样性文化,但作为团队中的唯一一个非洲裔美国人,她很难与同事们达成相同感受。「当我和我的团队一起吃饭或者其他什么时候,」她说,「有时就会发生这样的情况:'你们在说什么?』他们谈论他们看的电视节目或者读的书,但我从没看过他们谈论的那些东西。」

「早在民权时期就有这样的情况,」Burger 说,「浅色人种比较容易被接受,所以他们更容易进入公司或者组织。但现在有些不同了,现在有色人种进入公司的难点在于文化适应。你跟大家笑的是同一个笑点吗?你会滑冰什么的吗?」他说在 Pratt 到来之前,霍华德大学第一个去 Google 实习的学生在暑期实习期间表现很好,但最终没有被留用。公司告诉他,他还「不够 Google」。

尽管 Google 建立了入驻程序,Pratt 说,他「仍然面临很多障碍」,Google 并没有给予来霍华德大学教书的工程师奖励,这样的间隔很容易伤害到工程师,影响他们的评价和升值周期。Pratt 鼓励别人来参加这个项目,但他们都兴趣缺缺。

那年秋天,Facebook 的 Williams 和他的同事们也来到了这座校园,但访问进行得并不顺利。在一次与学生们的座谈上,一个 Facebook 员工总在提种族多样性的事,这让学生们感到不舒服,因为她只在说皮肤颜色的问题而没有提编程。这件事成为了 Facebook 重视种族多样性的广告,然而学生们却并没有得到工作。以为女发言人拒绝让 Williams 或者其他招聘人员接受采访,原因是「我们还在建设与霍华德大学的关系」。Dropbox 也在那年到霍华德大学进行了招聘,但同样没有雇佣任何全职员工。

到了大三,Foreman、Lomax、Alston 和 Holt 发现 Burge 对于计算机系的愿景正在改变。他觉得硅谷的公司对于计算机理论的要求没那么高,招聘人员更希望找到有效率、有创意、有经验的工人。Burger 在计算机系当中开设了关于开发 app 和建立公司的课程,同时也更注重编程项目,让学生们去参加黑客马拉松和其他的课外练习机会。「这是我们系在文化上的转型,」他说。

Burge 为他的每个学生量身定做计划。Foreman 不得不在校外寻找工作,这使他的成绩收到了影响,Burge 鼓励他去寻找为公司写程序的工作,而不是在那些与编程无关的事情上浪费自己的时间。同时,Lomax、Alston 和 Holt 则用传统的方式发展他们自己。大三暑假结束后,Lomax 在一家名为 Opower 的软件创业企业获得了带薪实习工作,Alston 和 Holt 则回到了 Google。暑假结束时,Alston 和 Holt 参加了 Google 将实习生专为正式员工的面试。Alston 获得了 offer。由于文化上的不同以及她的家人和朋友,她不想搬到加利福尼亚去,于是她获得了在纽约做一名程序员的工作。Holt 则没有被 Google 录取。

图为霍华德大学校园

 Lomax 迷上了硅谷,她认为自己在工作中学到的比在校园中更多。这年秋天,她做出了一个爆炸性的决定:她要离开校园前往西方。尽管她仍然想要在某个时候完成自己的学业,她还是在十一月的时候到达了硅谷。她在九月和十月中申请了几十个工作岗位,并用一个表格来跟进工作的进度。但在这个城市里的几周中,她依然没有获得任何 offer。Google、Twitter、Reddit 以及一些其它的公司拒绝了她,一些公司没有对她的申请或朋友推荐给出回应。也有一些积极的消息——她还在与 Facebook 和 LinkedIn 进行面试。「但所有的面试,」Lomax 说,「都让我觉得不知所措。」

她怀疑有些面试官拒绝她是因为她辍学了。在一些面试中,「你说到自己没有完成大学教育得实惠,事情就开始变得有点糟糕,」她说「就好像,如果你在面试中写出的算法并不是最有效率的,那么他们就会将这归咎于你没有完成大学学业的影响。」从哈佛退学创业是一回事,从霍华德大学肄业去应聘传统职位跟这完全不同。十一月中旬,Lomax 终于接受了 Pinterest 的一份实习工作。这家公司曾经拒绝招聘她为全职,但她觉得,如果她能够在那待上几个月,就一定能够说服他们雇用她。

Holt 同样早早离开了学校,但他是在十二月就修满了学分顺利毕业了。波音公司给了他一个职位,但这并没有让他感到兴奋,因为微软拒绝了他。Pinterest 邀请他到洛杉矶面试,但最终像对待 Lomax 一样只给了他一个实习职位而不是正式工作。Holt 被告知公司认为他的能力和个性都很好,但因为他太早毕业了,所以公司觉得他可能还没有准备好做全职工作。Holt 同样在等待来自 Google 的消息,但他也被拒绝了。在第二次面试期间,他被告知表现得很好,但依然没有通过转正面试。「我不知道哪里做错了。」他发短信给我,Google 的发言人拒绝评价这件事,说实习生不被录用的最常见原因是「技术能力不够」。过了一段时间,Holt 决定去考研究所,但在开课前他仍然要去 Pinterest 实习。Pinterest 的招聘人员 Bre Cheung 说,公司只能给 Holt 和 Lomax 实习职位是因为他们还在攻读学位。

与此同时,Foreman 已经成为了一个企业的顾问,但他有了另一个去硅谷的计划。早些时候他告诉 Burge 他想做个叫 SoundCrowd 的音乐 app,Burge 鼓励他将这作为创业课程的一部分与另一名教授共同任教。他还告诉 Foreman,有个名叫 Michael Seibel 的投资人可以帮助设计和运行这门课程。Seibel 还会给每个创业者捐献 1000 美元,用以购买设备、寻找客户等等。Seibel 是硅谷投资有前途初创公司的 Y Combinator 公司的合伙人,Foreman 认为加入 YC 可以开启他的企业家生涯,他也觉得自己能说服 Seibel 投资 SoundCowd。Burge 也告诉他可以。


 人们倾向于争论硅谷的多元性,一种观点认为,公司对于少数族群有偏见,或者至少是没有努力去吸引他们。另一种观点则认为这个群体中并没有足够多的人拥有能够胜任这份工作的背景,或者,至少是能够打败那些斯坦福毕业生的编程奖杯、实习经历和莫扎特一样的童年。现实是,这两种说法都是真的。

现在硅谷很多公司都设立了专门负责的高管让他们的团队多样化,Google、Dropbox、Facebook 和 Pinterest 就在其中。一些从事这项工作的人坦言,对有色人种的偏见——通常是无意识的——在无形中阻碍了硅谷的种族多样化,公司已经开始针对这种微妙的歧视对员工开展了训练,尽管公司还面临着另一个挑战。

开始采访大三的学生后,公司门发现就像是 Pratt 在霍华德大学发现的一样,这所学校还有很多没准备好的地方。他们的学生在大学前没接触过变成,大学中也没有间隔年,这些对于公司的进程而言太晚了。所以,他们开始面向大一大二的学生。「之前的承诺很重要,」Google 的女发言人 Roya Soleimani 说,「但我们也知道,有意义的改变需要时间。」

Pinterest 的工程师 Makinde Adeagbo 说,这些学生毕业前还有很长时间。Pinterest 公司只到霍华德大学参观过一次,但 Cheung 说,第一年到这所学校来主要目的不是提供职位,而是让学生们意识到 Pinterest 是他们的潜在雇主。Dropbox 的项目经理 Justin Bethune 参观了霍华德大学,他说,当时他在那里遇到的很多学生后来都在注明的东海岸(硅谷)中的公司找到了职位。对于出生在南方或东方的学生而言,搬到硅谷是个重要的承诺。他意识到「投资和建立学生的信任意识很重要」,而不仅仅是「参加一个招聘会」。Dropbox 的发言人说,他将在几个月后重返霍华德大学,Facebook 在经历了最初的尴尬后也在去年秋天重返了霍华德大学,并举办更多技术和招聘活动,给学生留下了深刻的印象,并在最近招聘了一个霍华德大学的学生作为全职。

Pratt 指出,霍华德大学目前出名还是因为它追求自由的行为,但它还没有很多的计算机系毕业生,目前计算机系本科应届毕业生还不到 30 人。与美国大学平均超过 100 名计算机系博士毕业生的情况相比,霍华德大学要培养出与硅谷招聘的那些顶尖大学的学生比肩的毕业生还需要很多时间。同时,公司们没有聘用 Lomax、Holt 和 Foreman 等等他心目中的优秀候选人,也是一种失败的行为。他觉得公司无意识的种族偏见,还是对他的学生们造成了一些阻碍。

「Hallie 并没有做出硅谷期待她做出的行为,就像是扎克伯克会做的那样,她没有表现出对硅谷的热情。」他说「人们认为她并不符合他们心目中的工程师形象,尽管人们觉得硅谷有很多精英,但我觉得这并没有什么卵用。」

Google 将其入驻计划扩展到其他黑人大学,并从这些学校中招聘超过一半的暑期实习生名额。但是,Pratt 说,他的项目可能是「在优化 Google 的形象,而不是在优化 Google 本身」。第二年,他离开了这家公司去斯坦福读了 MBA。他想要转行做一个风险投资人,去投资不同的初创企业。在霍华德大学的那段时间让他看到了硅谷的不公平,他说,他丧失了对于自己在 Google 能做的事情的信心。

在 11 月初,我在计算机系的会议室里与 Burge 见了一面。墙上挂满了他的学生的研究成果,白板上写着不知道哪个学生要解的数学题。在美国退伍军人日这一天,Burge 穿着阿迪达斯的运动服出现在我面前。他谈论着如何帮助提高学生的就业情况。来到霍华德大学的许多学生都缺乏编程知识,Burge 正着手试点计算机科学系新生的编程课。学生们可以在网上完成课程,完成了就可以去拿奖学金。之后 Burge 会不断改善课程,让理论知识少一些,不那么枯燥。大部分课程资源还是来自于互联网课程,因为 Burge 这个系能用的资源很少。Burge 正鼓励学校让他聘请更多教授来解决这个问题。但是不管霍华德大学的进步有多少,「创业公司的企业文化也需要跟着改变。」

即便是 Burge 的一些最好的同事有时候也让他失望。说到创业课,他还邀请过投资人 Seibel 来学校讲过两次课。但是课程刚开始,Seibel 就结婚了,之后被一些婚礼的事情给耽误了。最后一课 Seibel 是通过 Skype 完成讲课的。Burge 说,「他是个大忙人。」Burge 说话谨慎,不想批评 Seibel,但是语调出卖了他。


去年 11 月,Burge 的创业课结束。Foreman 和他的联合创始人与 Seibel 进行了一次虚拟对话。Foreman 希望 Seibel 能把他们带去 Y Combinator,「除非他想去培养创业公司,我觉得他不会花时间在我们身上的」。Seibel 则给出了他的一些鼓励,「如果你们把产品做出来的话,人们就会去用,我肯定是第一个用户。」

很快,笔者就跟 Seibel 联系上了。他对这门课程很有兴趣,他希望能在其他学校也开课,希望以后能有更多的黑人学校的学生们都懂得如何开公司,如何创业。「我认为有两大挑战,第一是让科技行业的劳动力多样化,第二就是让创业的人多样化。在 Y Combinator,我们关注第二个挑战比第一个多。」对于 Foreman 来说,应该是个好消息。我问 Seibel 是否还记得跟他的对话,「对我来说,他们确实是一群聪明又有技术的大学生。我相信他们有能力开发出自己想做的东西。」但是他也表示,这门创业课的目的不是帮助他们找到投资。创业公司创始人,应该关注与客户,而不是融资。Seibel 说,之所以课程中参与的次数不多,是因为自己太忙了,他希望教授能更多的掌握课程的主动权。

课程的最后,Seibel 用 Skype 讲课。他提出了一些问题:你们有多少客户了?你们觉得定价多少比较合适?课程最后,Burge 还问 Seibel 是否还有什么要说的。Seibel 向修了这门课的学生表示祝贺,「我知道,「我知道,」这门课上的比较艰辛」,随后,他就挂断了 Skype,让 Burge 和学生们「丈二和尚摸不着头脑」。

文章来源: Bloomberg,由 TECH2IPO / 创见 Rowson 编译,首发于创见科技(http://tech2ipo.com/),转载请注明出处 

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