用上这些电池技术,你的手机续航就有救了! - 小众知识

用上这些电池技术,你的手机续航就有救了!

2013年01月27日 14:18:05 苏内容
  标签: 电池/手机/续航
阅读:7328

在过去的几天里,我们讨论了一些有关于电池技术的问题,比如为什么智能手机和平板电脑的计算效能进步的如此之快,而电池技术却仿佛止步不前;以及手机续航差竟然是软件开发者的问题,因为他们的应用中含有大量无用的代码浪费了手机的能源和通讯资源。

我们明白了电池工业并非日新月异,但人们仍对未来怀有憧憬:至少,总有一天我的手机电池续航能超过一天吧!?

在电池系列讨论的第三期里,我们将介绍一些当下以及未来的前沿电池/充电技术,当中也不乏有早就诞生、性能先进,但因为成本和安全性的考量未能大批量生产并进入千家万户的技术。因为,没准未来的某一天,手机待机超过 2 天,让您的特斯拉可以在京沪之间跑一个来回也说不定。


固态电池

solid-state-battery

大多数人都听说过固态硬盘,基本上可能没听说过固态电池吧?其实固态电池很好理解,因为现有的绝大多数电池都是「液态电池」,电解质为液态。

密西根大学研究团队成立的一家名为 Sakti3 的公司正在研究一种新的固态电池,能量密度号称达到了每升容量 1100 瓦时,大约比现有的锂离子电池好 50% 左右——很可惜,固态电池的技术早已诞生,只是因为大批量生产成本/难度太高的原因被暂时搁置。还好,一直有研究人员在做出努力。

锂硫磺电池

Lithium_Sulfur_Batteries

使用纳米技术,将硫磺加入到现有的锂电池电解液化学成分当中,不仅能将其能量密度提升数倍,还可以延长使用寿命。一家名为 Sion Power 的公司过去获得了美国政府以及世界上最大的化学工业集团巴斯夫(BASF)的投资,该公司生产的锂硫磺电池号称可以达到每升容量 2600 瓦时的能量密度——很遗憾,锂硫磺电池技术和大多数其他高科技电池一样,想要以适宜市场的成本量产,还需要时日。

氢燃料电池

hydrogen-fuel-battery

和化石燃料一样,氢燃料电池的放电方式也是化学反应,发生在氢燃料和氧化剂中间,而不采用燃烧的方式,直接将化学能转化为电能,因而提高了效率。氢燃料电池早在 1838 年就被发明出来,知道上世纪中叶美国航天局将其用于阿波罗飞船才算是正式商用。虽然燃料电池听上去感觉没那么安全,但看起来苹果未来没准会考虑将其放在自己的手机、电脑等计算设备当中,他们 2010 年曾经提交过一项燃料电池专利。

英国一家名为 UPP 的公司也已经在销售氢燃料充电宝,售价 149 英镑,但是不能重复充电,用完了之后只能更换新的电池,售价 6 英镑。

Upp-hydrogen-fuel-charger-3


看了这么多暂时用不上的电池技术,想必大家的心情一定是这样的:用不了的你跟我说有什么用?别着急,接下来这几种技术都已经比较成熟,有的你已经在使用,有的你很快就能体验到。

锂离子电池

lithium-ion

从上世纪 70 年代第一块锂离子电池制成,到 20 年之后索尼将这种技术正式商用投产,再到现在日趋成熟,锂离子电池技术已经度过了快 50 年的时间——你没有看错,从制备到大规模生产就跨越了 20 年的时间。50 岁的高龄,对于锂离子电池来说可不算老。因为其他前沿的电池技术因为种种原因还无法大量生产和使用,锂离子电池在未来相当长的一段时间里仍然有用武之地。而且,从降低生产成本、提高能量密度的方面来看,锂离子电池仍有非常大的改进空间。

特斯拉的电动车就采用的是自家的锂离子电池,如果你拆解过或者看过别人拆解特斯拉的电池,会发现里面就是由一个个像五号电池一样的电芯组成的。为了供应自家电动车,特斯拉在内华达州建造了一座超级电池工厂(Gigafactory),造价高达 50 亿美元。因为高技术工具投入量巨大,生产规模庞大,这座超级工厂的生产成本比普通的锂离子电池制造厂要低 30% 左右——很明显,其他电池厂商的改进空间还是很大的。

快充技术

Qualcomm-Quick-Charge-2

其实电池技术的进步有很多个可努力的方向,比如单位能量密度提高、生产成本下降、放电效率提高、充电速度加快……没错,如果别的都很难搞定,至少我们可以让充电速度快一点。简单来说,同样电流电压高一倍,或者同样电压电流高一倍,充满一块手机电池的时间就会减少一些;当然,快充技术并没这么简单,它需要手机的芯片、主板以及电池等多个元件的配合,但如果你看一下你手头支持快充技术的充电器,会发现上面的标定电压电流基本就是上面提到的样子,一般会有两到三种不同的电压电流组合,从而实现在电池低电量时高压/高电流快充,快到满的时候减慢充电速率。

现在,高通、三星等知名移动技术厂商都有自家的快充技术,而由于这两家的移动芯片的市场份额,快充技术基本已经成为市场销售手机的标配。2015 年打算买手机?一定要看下手机是否支持快充,对生活质量有很大改善哦。

无线充电/远距离/定向无线充电

kinect-autocharge

跟快充技术相比,无线充电技术更常见了。通过一个线圈接收一定功率的电波,将其转化为电流输入电池,各大智能手机厂商的旗舰手机大多已经支持或者可以通过更换配件来支持无线充电。然而,和无线充电相比还有更激进的做法,微软亚洲研究院的一个团队研究的方向就是超远距离的无线充电。场景:当用户携带手机进入充电范围内,识别器将会识别该设备,然后发射一道聚焦的可见光波,让支持无线充电的手机接收到并开始充电。为了保证安全,手机和充电设备之间通过发出不同颜色光的 LED 进行沟通,并且在有障碍物挡住的时候(比如有人穿过光波)就会立刻停止发光。

除了这种听上去更高科技的定向无线充电之外,更简单的方法就是更轻薄同时功率更高的无线充电板,未来将可以直接作为建筑装修材料安装在墙上、地面或者天花板上,当设备进入充电范围内将可以自动开始充电。

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