戴国芳:阶下囚与英雄的十年辩证 - 小众知识

戴国芳:阶下囚与英雄的十年辩证

2013年01月27日 14:18:05 苏内容
  标签: 钢铁
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赶超宝钢
2013年1月,网易财经曾独家披露,2004年铁本案的主角戴国芳已经东山再起,并于2010年8月在江苏省响水县投资成立了一家镍合金冶炼公司。这一次,戴国芳行事异常调查,并不愿面对公众和媒体。
而在他的老家常州市,即便已经过去十年,铁本和戴国芳的词汇依然在当地带有敏感气息。一位当地律师日前婉言挂掉网易财经的电话,并表示,早前曾因为谈论戴国芳遭到当地政府部门“气势汹汹地质问”,差点饭碗不保。
这是一个讽刺。当年,戴国芳被地方政府簇拥着,放出“3年内超过宝钢,5年内赶上浦项”这个卫星,如今戴国芳却成为当地官员们人人避之不及、希望尽快把他忘记的梦魇。
戴国芳小学都没有毕业,最早的工作只是泥瓦匠。灵活的头脑让他几经辗转后,以小电炉加废铁屑的土法炼钢模式进入钢铁业。铁本,这个名字由来也是要昭示戴国芳是从钢铁本身起家的。后来随着摊子越铺越大,等到2003年戴国芳40岁时,铁本公司产量的已经增长至160万吨,戴国芳本人也成为亿万富翁,在2003年登上“中国400富人榜”。
在当年戴国芳的辩护律师、北京天达律师事务所钱列阳眼里,戴国芳曾是个工作狂,做事很敬业,“符合八九十年代第一代民营企业家创业时的那种形象”。据媒体报道的一个细节,戴国芳不喜应酬,每次不出去办事时,他宁可蹲在厂里和工人一起钻研焊接的技术。
至今,戴国芳都没有好好对外面讲述过他的心路历程,当初究竟是什么原因使他的信心突然高调膨胀起来,并喊出了赶超宝钢的口号。后来很多报道说,铁本最初的扩张方案只是100万吨,是在地方政府的撺掇下,戴国芳被裹挟着把产能目标调高到了840万吨,加上原有产能即是千万吨级别。
改革启示录之戴国芳
铁本曾喊出过“3年内超过宝钢,5年内赶上浦项”的口号
地方政府
根据媒体报道,戴国芳后来在看守所中也说:“当政府说可以动了,我们就开工了。我都是在听政府的话,这有什么错呢?”他也许有想不通的地方,一个地方政府极力支持的项目怎么就违法了呢?
地方政府当然有自己的考虑。地处长江边上的常州市在21世纪初已经感受到了和周边兄弟地区竞争中被甩下的尴尬。常常挂在人们嘴边的苏锡常对比中,到了2003年,苏州和无锡的总产值分别为2802.20亿元和1901.22亿元,常州仅为900.20亿元。于是,扶持大企业、上马大项目成为地方政府赶超计划的切入点。
只是,常州市的当政者们低估了中央政府进行宏观调控的决心。当时的大背景是,一方面在国退民进的大浪潮中,经济学家们在讨论是否该允许民营企业进入原材料等上游行业,另一方面,钢铁业的投资热潮也被中央政府认定为盲目冲动、过度投资。铁本项目,最终成为不幸的杀鸡儆猴的对象。
戴国芳从2004年4月19日被抓到2009年4月17日案件最终宣判时共获刑5年,而他获罪的罪名从最初的五项大罪最后只剩下了一个虚开用于抵扣税款发票罪。“戴国芳并不是主观上恶意性很大的商人,从最后罪名看就是一个没有理由的理由”,钱列阳律师对网易财经表示。
作为国务院认定的铁本案件的责任方之一,地方政府的官员也多人受到严厉惩处。其中,常州市市委书记范燕青被处以党内严重警告,江苏省国土资源厅副厅长王明详、省发改委副主任秦雁江、中国银行常州分行行长王建国等被撤职或责令辞职。
“铁本的事情不能全怪他,谁在那个位置上都会出事”,钱列阳律师对网易财经表示,当时是宏观调控和地方经济发展之间矛盾爆发的结果,而戴国芳却成为牺牲品,这样的结果让民营企业家来承担很不妥当,是很令人遗憾的事情。
“戴国芳是当年被整得太狠了,铁本项目就像一个新生胎儿,再晚几个月就可以出生了,但是却被扼杀了,造成投资浪费,企业死掉,人也被抓,本来可以成为英雄的戴国芳,最终成为了阶下囚”,一位要求匿名的钢铁业专家对网易财经谈起戴国芳依然唏嘘不止。
改革启示录之戴国芳
铁本项目不幸成为杀鸡儆猴的对象。
十年辩证
“感谢关心,我们一切都不容易,我们也是希望能低调做事,希望能继续得到你们的支持”,江苏德龙镍业有限公司总经理戴笠今年1月份接到网易财经的电话时表示。他是戴国芳的儿子,自从重新创业后,戴国芳基本基本完全隐身在幕后,公司事宜都由年轻的儿子出面打理。
“过去的十年对于国内任何一个钢铁企业来说都是很好的发展机会,如果铁本公司不倒,也许今天我们就会看到第二个沙钢”,上述钢铁业专家表示。
根据这位专家提供的数据,2004年中国的钢铁产量还是2.8亿吨,但是到2012年已经增长到7.2亿吨,今年有可能达到7.8亿吨,“可以算算这里面增长了几倍,别说是一个铁本的产量,就是十个铁本市场也能容纳得下”。
但是,铁本公司已难以看到十年后市场形势。而2004年的现实是,宝钢和唐钢是国内仅有两个超过千万吨钢产量的钢铁企业,加上当时产量也达到700万吨的沙钢,长三角地区能不能容纳下三个千万吨级钢铁企业,每个人心里都在打鼓。
现在,失去铁本的常州市,又培养出了一个千万吨级产能的钢铁企业,即中天钢铁集团。而在民营钢铁企业中,沙钢以超过3000万吨粗钢产量成为全国第五大钢铁企业,同样千万吨级的还有山东的日照钢铁。只是令人遗憾的是,日照钢铁近年来又陷入另外一种和政府博弈的艰难处境。
上述钢铁专家表示,铁本项目的失败,政府的行政干预起了决定性的作用,但是十年时间过去,中国现有的钢铁产量也可以让人们看清以遏制过度投资为主要目的的宏观调控的效果如何。铁本案如果要反思的话,也是要反思充斥着人为因素的行政干预是否合适,政府和市场的角色该如何处理等等。
不过,十年也是一个轮回,产能超过十亿吨的中国钢铁业问题丛生,现在又陷入产能过剩的争论和打压同时并进的状态,地方政府的阴奉阳痿和中央政府的调控禁令也在来往穿插。惟不知最后会是什么结果。
改革启示录之戴国芳
如今戴国芳(右二)已经东山再起,但异常低调。【详细】



我足足花了2个多小时,才绕着铁本江边的项目踩了个遍。只不过,看着工地上疯长的蒿草,锈迹斑斑的钢材,以及路边各种已经褪色的施工材料,破旧的工棚,半身挺立的炼钢高炉,施工现场2年多来并没有采取措施保护,任凭风吹雨打,……我心里一直是凉的。我有如陷入了泥潭,踩到了棉花,许多疑问难以求证,许多……

我在想,在法院判定以前,这些资产都是戴国芳的,而在这之后……,我相信戴国芳真的会一无所有,然而,无论是谁的资产,戴老板的,重组者的,地方政府的,国家的,都不能如此践踏,这不仅是对私人财产的保护不利,更是我们集体对财富的不尊重,对财富和金钱规律的极度蔑视!

而做不到这一条,中国即使在富裕,充其量也只是个暴发户——通过掠夺、原罪等等肮脏的手段——无法做到和谐致富、和平崛起。

我印象深刻的是常州当地群众对戴的好评、同情,人都说树倒猢狲散,老百姓心里还是有杆秤的。据说当地出现过万人上书为戴国芳求情的事情。

我去过戴家,看过戴家紧锁的大门,见过戴家父母对任何人不信任的神态,不愿跟任何人说话的眼神,我理解那是一种绝望。

有一个细节我没有写进文章里,那就是作为一个亿万富翁,戴国芳除了没有在老家盖楼房,也没有在市里买房产之外,据他邻居大爷讲,他家被查封资产的时候只有8万元钱,“他自己没钱,钱都被别人赚走了”,这是我听到乡里相邻们说得最普遍的一句朴素的话。

鹰是戴国芳的图腾,钢铁是戴国芳的梦想。如今,他的工厂已经被人占领,鹰也已被人拆除!

在戴的旧部印象中,他这个人是个彻彻底底的理想主义者,他还有朴素的爱国主义精神,比如他在美国炸中国大使馆的时候,留下的豪言壮语是“中国要造航母,他第一个捐款”。

我有幸看过戴国芳从牢里寄出来的“明信片”,那是戴跟外界的唯一联系手段,我的印象,即使这个人在牢里,依旧充满着对事业的渴望和激情。

我意外的发现,在中国的企业家群中,只有小学毕业的戴国芳是一个另类,他不是那种官商勾结,也不是那种原始压榨,他崇尚纯粹的经商之道,他如果在西方,那是一个让人仰慕的创富者,造福一方的企业家。我真希望,40多岁的戴国芳出来,还能东山再起,造福一方。

 

关于戴国芳的定罪,如果按照法律的话,是很难判定的——这里用律师的话说:“我觉得这确实是一个漏洞,但是由于这一块行业比较特殊,怎么来进一步弥补漏洞是个关键,要求当事人去承担的话有可能被冤枉——因为我明明是有货的,明明是可以享受这个税率优惠的,只因为我没票所以我找人开票就可以定罪,从国家的角度来讲并没有损失,你本来就应该给他免税的啊。”沈国祥律师向《商务周刊》指出,问题的关键是要证明这一过程中有的人明明是用得少,开得多,“这要看证据,作为公诉人来讲是要举证的”。但实际上,铁本从回收公司开回的16亿发票中,到底有多少是真正的进货,有多少是虚开,已经很难查得清,也没人能查得清。“因此,我们律师的观点很简单。”沈国祥说,“就两句话,有货的,你不能定罪,因为这是国家规定的;没货的当然可以定罪,但你现在没有证据,所以我觉得这个案子要定罪还是比较困难的。”

不过,相信谁也不敢给戴国芳判个无罪,毕竟他被看作是当年宏观调控的顶风作案者。除非中央能排除各种力量的博弈和干扰,表现出高风亮节。

无论如何,庭审后一般要在一个半月内宣布,但案情复杂的可以延期,真心希望不要延得太久。



 

   经历大起大落之后,年逾五十的戴国芳或许更能洞彻他的天命所在。铁本的雄心壮志早已凋零殆尽,只有那无尽的蒿草仍在无所顾忌地疯长,似乎在做历史的见证,又似乎在做无尽的言说

  法治周末特约撰稿 邓学平

   在中国企业家年谱中,戴国芳是无法跳过的一个名字。他出生贫寒,却实现了从一名普通泥瓦匠到中国富豪的蝶变。

   他曾经雄心万丈,想晋升为中国新一代的钢铁大王。但不曾料到,一场巨浪将他吞噬。如今,戴国芳成了一面镜子,折射出中国民营企业家的命运和时代的变迁。

   泥瓦匠出身的企业家

   1964年,戴国芳出生在江苏省常州市武进区东安镇安北村的一户农民家庭。这是一个从蒿草丛里长出来的苦孩子,他初中二年级便不得不辍学谋生,跟随父亲做起了泥瓦匠。

   16岁那年,他开始转行做废品收购生意。那时,常州一带办起了很多中小型制造企业,戴国芳就每天去工厂附近捡拾和收购废旧铜铁。尽管受教育程度不高,但是他似乎有着特别的商业禀赋和天分。稍稍积攒了一点钱,他就去买了一辆手扶拖拉机。这样一来,不仅他的收购半径扩大了很多,而且收购效率也成倍提升。尝到甜头后,他很快又买回一台压块机。因为他发现,将碎铁压成铁块可以卖出更高的价钱。没过不久,他已经能将压出的铁块卖到无锡和上海的钢厂。

   1984年前后,戴国芳发现炼铁的利润要远远高于废铁买卖,便在自家老院子的旁边辟出一块地,挂牌办起了一家名叫三友轧辊厂的炼钢作坊,并一口气购进了3台小电炉。戴国芳也许不知道,从这一刻起,他的命运已经注定与炼钢捆在了一起。

   由于小电炉电耗成本很高,戴国芳转而从上海等地的国有企业购买了几台淘汰下来的二手转炉和化铁炉,形成了简单的产业链。在积累了一定的炼钢经验之后,戴国芳又去承包了一些濒临倒闭的国有钢厂的车间。那是一个体制决定效率的年代,在国有企业厂长手上毫无生机的炼钢车间一旦转到了戴国芳的手中,顿时就成了赚钱的机器。最多的时候,他名下的承包车间有5家之多。

   由于经营有方,戴国芳逐渐完成了他的原始积累。1996年,他手头上的资金已经达到6000万元。这一年,戴国芳带着他的全部家当,在常州注册成立了江苏铁本钢铁有限公司,寓意以铁起家、不离本业。

   富豪榜新秀

   1990年代中后期,东南亚金融危机席卷全球。政府迅即启动了大规模的刺激政策,国内各种能源全面紧缺,钢铁和电力成为最紧俏的商品。在钢铁市场上,无论是线材(2011, 0.00, 0.00%)还是板材,普通钢还是特种钢,价格普遍持续上涨,几乎到了“一天一价”的地步。那时铁本厂的门口,来自全国各地的大卡车每天排成长龙。

   铁本的快速发展并没有让戴国芳沾沾自喜、夜郎自大。戴国芳比任何人都清楚,铁本工厂的规模还是偏小,技术水平仍然偏低,生产的都是轧辊、连铸坯等低技术含量的产品。为了让铁本跃上一个新台阶,戴国芳决定倾其所有上马高炉项目。

   高炉建成之日,戴国芳当着数千工人面对高炉长跪不起,泪水与汗水交混而下,在场的人无不为之动容。这一年,铁本的钢产量猛增到100万吨,销售收入超过25亿元。在当年的《新财富》“中国400富人榜”上,他名列第376位,估算资产为2.2亿元。

   2002年的春天是一个草长莺飞的季节。38岁的戴国芳在长江南岸的长堤边独自踱步,新建一个大钢铁厂的想法在他的脑中挥之不去。按戴国芳的估算,中国的这股钢铁热起码还可以延续5到6年,这是钢铁人一生难遇的大行情。戴国芳不想错过任何可能使铁本有更好发展的机会。

   那一年,戴国芳从一个偶然的机会得知,常州市准备在长江沿岸附近辟出3万亩左右的土地作为产业基地。长江沿线号称中国的钢铁长廊,武汉钢铁、九江钢铁、马鞍山钢铁、南京钢铁、宝钢集团等钢铁巨人比肩而立、蔚为壮观。戴国芳决定将铁本建在这些国字号大佬们的身边,有意要一竞高下。

   按照戴国芳当初的设想,新建设的工厂比现有产能大出一倍左右,它的主体建设是两座高炉和一个14米深的深水码头,占地2000亩,年产260万吨的宽厚板,总投资额为10亿元左右,主要以自有资金滚动投入。在与苏州、无锡的GDP竞赛中逐渐处于下风、亟需大的投资项目拉动增长的常州市政府在知道这一情况后,主动伸出了橄榄枝,出台了一系列扶持加码政策。

   那时全国各地都在上马钢铁项目,常州市政府非常希望铁本的新厂能扩大规模和影响。在当地政府的热情推动下,铁本项目规划一改再改。短短6个月,规模从一开始的200万吨级,加码到400万吨级、600万吨级,最后被确定在840万吨级,占地规模从2000亩攀升到9379亩,工程概算也从10亿元剧增为106亿元,产品定位则提升为船用板和螺纹钢(1660, -10.00, -0.60%)等较高档次产品。

   在那个时候,铁本的固定资产只有12亿元,净资产仅6.7亿元。以这样的资本规模要启动一个超百亿元的项目,没有金融机构的强力支持是无法想象的。在确认政府支持的信息后,当地银行大开绿灯,铁本几乎没费什么功夫就获得了近44亿元的银行授信。然而,成熟的规划、充足的资金配套只是基础,这种规模的投资项目按规定还必须得到国家发改委的批准。

   当时急着上马工程的不仅有戴国芳,还有当地政府。铁本项目如果照实上报,不但审批流程旷日持久,而且获准的机会十分渺茫。于是,铁本的840万吨项目被拆分成7个子项目和1个码头项目分别上报,铁本相应成立了7家“中外合资公司”。同时,当地政府火速批准了所有的基建项目,甚至有些手续直接由政府代为办理妥当。

   当地政府的鼎力支持,让戴国芳更加全身心地投入到新厂的建设上。据一位参与该项目的包工头回忆,戴国芳由于整天都想着新项目,每天差不多7点就开始上班,晚上12点的时候还要亲自到工地查看进度,常常工作到凌晨一两点钟。由于精神高度紧张,戴国芳甚至要借助安眠药才能入睡。

   那时戴国芳近乎玩命的工作只为了那句“3年超过宝钢,5年赶上浦项”的豪言壮语。在当时,几乎所有人都认为这只是呓语,只有戴国芳把它当成了真正的目标。

   调控风暴引来牢狱之灾

   就在戴国芳的铁本厂建设得如火如荼之时,一场猛烈的调控风暴不期而至。戴国芳和铁本厂的命运就此急转直下,其结局之惨痛超出了所有人的想象。

   面对“全民炼钢”的热潮,国务院于2003年年底发文要求迅速遏制钢铁领域的盲目投资。2004年2月,国务院组成8个督查组分赴各地清查钢铁、电解铝、水泥等行业中的“盲目投资行为”。就这样,戴国芳和他的铁本被卷入了一场始料未及的惊涛骇浪之中,悲剧性地成为那场宏观调控的“祭旗者”。

   面对声势浩大的调查,从来没有应付过如此场面的戴国芳方寸大乱。于是,他向上级呈递了一份自查报告,供认自己虚开了近两亿元的发票,并且承诺尽快补缴所有的税款。然而,事态远比他想象中的要严重的多。正是这份自查报告在两年后成了检察机关指控其犯罪的最有力证据。

   3月20日,遭到巨大压力的常州市政府组成了铁本项目清理工作领导小组,紧急下达了停工令。4月初,一个由9部委组成的专项检查组赶赴常州,对铁本进行全面检查。4月19日,戴国芳和他的妻子、岳父等10人被警方带走。此后,新华社向全国播发通稿,《人民日报》也为此专门发表社论。铁本成为宏观调控的“第一案”,项目被迫全面下马。

   然而单纯从司法角度,戴国芳的案件却充满争议。该案最初因“违法用地”而起,媒体列举了其5个方面的问题,但检方指控的却只有虚开增值税专用发票一个罪名。戴国芳被逮捕羁押超过两年后,才迎来首次开庭,羁押4年之后,法院一审还未判决。2009年4月,戴国芳最终被以“虚开用于抵扣税款发票罪”判处5年有期徒刑,并用“羁押折抵刑期”,戴国芳很快就取保候审开始恢复人身自由。

   判刑确定之日,即是戴国芳重获自由之日。然而戴国芳的悲剧所引发的争议却并未因此停息,甚至有人将之视为“国进民退”的标志性事件。

   出狱之后不久,戴国芳又开始了新一轮的创业。只是此次,他显得异常低调。经历大起大落之后,年逾五十的戴国芳或许更能洞彻他的天命所在。铁本的雄心壮志早已凋零殆尽,只有那无尽的蒿草仍在无所顾忌地疯长,似乎在做历史的见证,又似乎在做无尽的言说。

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